English translation (word)
English translation (etymon)
Διαφέρει φίλος, ἑταῖρος καὶ ξένος· φίλος μὲν γὰρ ὁ συγγενὴς λέγεται παρὰ τὸ πίνω, ἑταῖρος δὲ ὁ συμπολίτης παρὰ τὸ ἔτης, ὁ πολίτης, καὶ τὸ ἀρῶ, τὸ ἁρμόζω, ξένος δὲ ὁ ἀπεξενωμένος τῆς χώρας καὶ μακρόθεν ὤν
There is a difference between philos "friend", hetairos "companion" and xenos "host". Philos, the relative, comes from pinō "to drink", hetairos, the one from the same city, from etēs "citizen" and arô, which means "to adapt" (harmozō), xenos "host" is the one who has become a stranger to his country and is far away
Compositional etymology parsing the word as "adapted, fit citizen" (if the verb is intransitive), rather than "who adapts citizens" (if the verb is taken as active). The verb *'ἀρῶ is a ghost-form for the sake of the etymology. The idea is that ἑταῖρος "companion" is somehow "adapted" to someone because friendship relies on affinities. The relationship with ἔτης is correct for modern linguists, but not the analysis of the word as a compound.
There is no parallel