English translation (word)
English translation (etymon)
Φιλόξενος γὰρ ἐν τῷ Περὶ μονοσυλλάβων φησίν, ὅτι ἔστιν ἰδιότυπος ῥηματικὸς χαρακτήρ· καὶ ὡς παρὰ τὸ βήσω βῆσα καὶ βῆσσα, ἄξω ἄξα καὶ ἄμαξα, πείσω πεῖσα
Philoxenus says in his On monosyllables that there is a specific verbal character; and as from the future bēsō "I will walk" one derives *bēsa and then bēssa "wooded combe", so from axō "I will drive" axa and then hamaxa "chariot", from peisō "I will persuade" peisa "calm"
This descriptive etymology, transmitted by an A scholion to Il. 10.290, takes as a starting point an inflected form, that of the future of the verb "to walk", and requires next a phonetic manipulation (adding a consonant) to account for the form. Philoxenus sought as a principle the etymology of words in verbal forms, and this one is representative of his method. But within a verb, he was free to select any temporal stem as a starting point. He provided parallels according to the analogical principle for this derivation process, all starting from a future form from which a feminine noun is allegedly derived. The etymology became standard and is found in several sources.
Etym. Genuinum, beta 107 (Βῆσσα· ὁ βασιμώτατος καὶ ὑψηλὸς καὶ κοῖλος τόπος χ 190. παρὰ τὸν βήσω μέλλοντα γίνεται βῆσσα κατὰ πλεονασμὸν ἑτέρου σ· δι’ ὧν ἐστι βῆναι καὶ πορεύεσθαι); Etym. Magnum, Kaiilerges p. 196 (idem); Etym. Gudianum, alpha p. 54 (Αἶσα· ἡ μοῖρα καὶ εἱμαρμένη. παρὰ τὸ δαίω, τὸ μερίζω, δαίσω δαῖσα, ὡς βήσω βῆσα καὶ <βῆσσα καὶ> πείσω πεῖσα, ἡ πεισμονή); Etym. Gudianum Additamenta, beta p. 268 (Βῆσσα· ὁμοίως παρὰ τὸν βήσω μέλλοντα πλεονασμῷ τοῦ ς); Etym. Gudianum Additamenta, gamma p. 315 (Γλῶσσα· τὸ φωνητικὸν ὄργανον παρὰ τὸ γνώσω γνῶσα καὶ πλεονασμῷ τοῦ ς γνῶσσα καὶ γλῶσσα, ἡ ὑπὸ γνῶσιν ἄγουσα τὰ ἐν τῇ διανοίᾳ. ἀπὸ μελλόντων πολλὰ γίνεται θηλυκά, ὡς δόξω δόξα, βήσω βῆσα καὶ ἐν διπλασιασμῷ βῆσσα); Etym. Symeonis 1 p. 432; Ps.-Zonaras, Lexicon, beta p. 386; Scholia et glossae in Sophoclis Ajacem 198c.