ἀ- + τρέπω

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Wed, 11/03/2021 - 10:30

Word-form

ἀταρπός

Transliteration (Word)

atrapos

English translation (word)

path

Transliteration (Etymon)

a- + trepō

English translation (etymon)

not + to turn

Author

Pseudo-Manetho

Century

3 AD?

Source

Idem

Ref.

Apotelesmatica 6.224

Ed.

H. Köchly, Poetae bucolici et didactici, Paris: Didot, 1862

Quotation

τῷ καὶ ἐγὼ τρέψω ἑτέρην μετ’ ἀταρπὸν ἀοιδὴν || ἀμφὶ τέκνων γενεῆς ἐνέπων 

Translation (En)

For that reason I too will turn (trepsō) my song, following the other path (atarpon), singing about the generation of children

Comment

The etymology is implicit, and appears as a figura etymologica. However, the etymology of ἀτραπός/ἀταρπός as a compound of τρέπω is consistently mentioned in later sources and makes it almost certain that we have here an implicit etymology given as a pun. The word itself was understood either with a privative prefix “the straight path”, not turning, or with an intensive prefix “the turning path” (see Parallels).

Parallels

Etym. Genuinum, alpha 1343 (Ἀταρπός Ρ 743· σημαίνει τὴν εὐθεῖαν ὁδόν· παρὰ τὸ τρέπω τρέψω, ὁ δεύτερος ἀόριστος ἔτραπον, γίνεται ῥηματικὸν ὄνομα ἀτραπός μετὰ τοῦ στερητικοῦ α, καὶ κατὰ μετάθεσιν ἀταρπός, ἐξ ἧς ὁδοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν τραπῆναι καὶ ἐκπεσεῖν· ἢ ἡ πολύτροπος· εἰς πολλὰ γὰρ σχίζεται ἡ ὁδός. καὶ † ἀταρπητός Σ 565· ἡ ὁδός); ibid., alpha 1370 (Ἀτραπός· ἡ ὁδός· παρὰ τὸ τρέπω τραπός καὶ κατ’ ἐπίτασιν τοῦ α ἀτραπός. καὶ ἀτραπιτός ἡ αὐτή, ἡ πολλὰς τοῖς ἄλλοις τροπὰς παρέχουσα); Etym. Gudianum Additamenta, alpha, p. 228 (Ἀτραπός· ἡ ὁδός, ἥτις λέγεται καὶ ἀταρπιτὸς καὶ ἀταρπός. εἴρηται παρὰ τὸ πατῶ καὶ κατ’ ἐπίτασιν τοῦ α, ἡ ἄγαν πατουμένη· ἄπατος, ἄταπος καὶ πλεονασμῷ τοῦ ρ ἀτραπός, καὶ ἐν παραγωγῇ ἀταρπιτός. ἢ παρὰ τὸ τρέπω, ἡ πολλὰς ἐκτροπὰς ἔχουσα, τοῦ ε εἰς α τραπέντος καὶ μετὰ τοῦ ἐπιτατικοῦ α ἀτραπός· κυρίως δὲ ἡ στενὴ ἐν ὄρει ὁδός); Etym. Magnum, Kallierges, p. 162 (Ἀταρπός: Ἡ εὐθεῖα ὁδός. Παρὰ τὸ τρέπω, τρέψω· ὁ δεύτερος ἀόριστος, ἔτραπον· γίνεται ῥηματικὸν ὄνομα τραπός· μετὰ τοῦ στερητικοῦ α, καὶ κατὰ μετάθεσιν, ἀταρπὸς, ἐξ ἧς ὁδοῦ οὐκ ἔστι τραπῆναι καὶ ἐκπεσεῖν· ἢ ἡ πολύτροπος· εἰς πολλὰ γὰρ σχίζεται ἡ ὁδός. Καὶ ἀτράπιτος, ἡ αὐτὴ, ἡ ἀτραπής· παρὰ τὸ τρέπω, τραπός· καὶ κατ’ ἐπίτασιν τοῦ α, ἀτραπὸς, ἡ πολλὰς τοῖς ἄλλοις τροπὰς παρέχουσα); Ps.-Zonaras, Lexicon, alpha, p. 335 (Ἀτραπιτὸς καὶ ἀτραπὸς, ἡ ὁδός. [παρὰ τὸ τρέπω, τρέψω, ὁ δεύτερος ἀόριστος ἔτραπον, γίνεται ῥηματικὸν ὄνομα τραπὸς, στερήσει τοῦ α καὶ κατὰ μετάθεσιν ἀτραπὸς, ἐξ ἧς ὁδοῦ οὐκ ἔστι τραπῆναι. ἢ ἡ πολύτροπος· εἰς πολλὰ γὰρ σχίζεται. γράφεται δὲ καὶ ἀταρπός]); Scholia in Aristophanem, Commentarium in Nubes 76a (Tzetzes) (ἀτραπὸς ἀπὸ τοῦ α στερητικοῦ καὶ τοῦ τρέπω, τὸ λεγόμενον μονοπάτιον); Joannes Rhet., Commentarium in Hermogenis librum Περὶ ἰδεῶν, p. 154 (ἐπὶ γὰρ τῆς εὐθείας, καὶ μὴ ἄλλοσέ που τὸν ὁδίτην τρεπούσης,); Anonymous commentary in Hermogenes, Commentarium in librum Περῖ ἰδεῶν vol. 7, p. 923 (Διὸ τὸ ἀταρπὸς οὐ τέτραπται μὲν, ταχὺ δέ ἐστιν· καὶ οὐχ ἁρμόττει καθαρῷ λόγῳ· ἀτραπὸς δὲ ἦν τὸ ὑγιὲς παρὰ τὸ μὴ τρέπεσθαι· δηλοῖ δὲ τὴν εὐθεῖαν ὁδὸν καὶ ἀκαμπῆ, εἶτα καὶ κατὰ μετάθεσιν τοῦ ρ’ ἀτραπός)

The etymology is implicit in Theodorus Prodromus, Rhodante et Dosicles 3.327 (πρὸς ἀτραποῦ τέτραπτο καὶ τρίτης τρόπον); Anna Comnena, Alexias 2.4.1 (πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἀπειπόντες ἐφ’ ἑτέραν ἀτραπὸν ἐτράπησαν), 5.7.3. (ἐφ’ ἑτέραν ἐτράποντο ἀτραπόν) etc.; Constantin Manasses, Hodoeporicon sive itinerarium 3.75 (ἄλλην ἀτραπὸν ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἐτράπην); maybe in Pseudo-Johannes Chrysostomus, In Rachelem et infantes, MPG 61, p. 699 (ἐπὶ τὴν ἀτραπὸν τοῦ Εὐαγγελίου τραπῶμεν). This probably became a ready-made phrase early on.

Modern etymology

Within Greek, belongs with τραπέω "to tread", and ἀτραπὸς οἶνος "trampled". It is the "treaded (path)", with copulative alpha and psilosis (Beekes, EDG)

Persistence in Modern Greek

MG still has ατραπός "rough path" with metaphoric meaning, as a learned word

Entry By

Le Feuvre