ἅλλομαι

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Thu, 08/05/2021 - 14:03

Word-form

ἄλσος

Transliteration (Word)

alsos

English translation (word)

(sacred) grove

Transliteration (Etymon)

hallomai

English translation (etymon)

to leap

Author

Apion

Century

1 AD

Source

Idem

Ref.

Fragmenta de grossis homericis, Ludwich 1917, p. 216

Ed.

A. Ludwich, "Über die homerischen Glossen Apions," Philologus 74 (1917) 209-247; 75 (1919) 95-103

Quotation

ἄλσος βʹ· δασυνόμενον μὲν τὸν σύνδενδρον τόπον (Β 506). ψιλούμενον δὲ τὸ ἱερόν (s. ζ 321 f.).

Translation (En)

Halsos: when it has a rough breathing, it is the grove (Il. 2.506); when it has a smooth breathing, it is the sanctuary (Od. 6.321)

Comment

The etymology is implicit, but the δασύνεται refers to the etymology of ἄλσος by ἅλλομαι, explicit in other sources, which is the only one that can explain the δασύνεται. The grove is the place where the trees grow fast and seemingly leap toward the sky. Eustathius gives this etymology and explains the form with a smooth breathing as an Aeolic form. The Etym. Magnum has an interesting observation that the expected form *ἅλλος was changed in order to avoid a homonymy with ἄλλος "other" (not taking aspiration into account since this reflects a psilotic state of the language): the effects of homonymy on the lexicon are indeed acknowledged in modern etymology, although of course the solution brought is different from that of Greek scholars.

Parallels

Etym. Genuinum, alpha 537 (Ἄλσος· τὸ σύμφυτον χωρίον· παρὰ τὸ ἄλδω ἄλσω ἄλσος. ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἄρδω, ὁ μέλλων ἄρσω, ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἄλσος. […] ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἄλλω τὸ ἀλλόμενον, ἄλλος καὶ διὰ τὴν συνέμπτωσιν τὴν πρὸς τὸ ἄλλος γίνεται ἄλσος κατὰ τροπὴν τοῦ λ εἰς σ. Μεθόδιος);  Eustathius, Comm. Il. 4, 358 Van der Valk (Ἄλσεα δὲ λέγει καλὰ τοὺς κήπους ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅλλω ἄλσω Αἰολικῶς. διὸ καὶ ψιλοῦται, ὅπου δηλαδὴ τὰ φυτὰ ἐξ ὑγρότητος καὶ πνεύματος εἰς αὔξην ἅλλονται. διὸ καὶ οὐ μόνον ἄλσος ὁ τοιοῦτος λέγεται τόπος ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅλλεσθαι); Eustathius, Comm. Od. 2, 236 Stallbaum (ἄλση μὲν λέγονται παρ’ οἷς ἅλλονται δένδρα); ibid., 1, 334 (Ἄλσος δὲ δενδρῆεν, ὁποῖος ὁ ἐν ἄλλοις πολυδένδρεος κῆπος. θεῖον μέντοι τὸ ἄλσος. παράγεται δὲ Αἰολικῶς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅλλω ἅλσω, ἐν ᾧ ἅλλονται φυτά); ibid., 1, 255 (Τὸ δὲ ἄλσος, Αἰολικὴ λέξις ἀπὸ τοῦ ἄλλω ἄλσω. διὸ καὶ ψιλοῦται. ψιλωτικοὶ γὰρ ὥσπερ Ἴωνες, οὕτω καὶ Αἰολεῖς); Etym. Magnum, Kallierges, p. 70 (Ἄλσος: Τὸ σύμφυτον χωρίον. Παρὰ τὸ ἄλδω ἄλσω ἄλσος. Ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἄρδω, ὁ μέλλων, ἄρσω,   καὶ ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἄλσος. Ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἄλλω τὸ ἀλλόμενον, ἄλλος· καὶ διὰ τὴν συνέμπτωσιν τὴν πρὸς τὸ ἄλλος γίνεται ἄλσος, κατὰ τροπὴν τοῦ λ εἰς σ, τὸ τέμενος); Etym. Symeonis, vol. 1, p. 334 (ἄλσος· παρὰ τὸ ἄλδω, <τὸ αὔξω,> ἄλσω ἄλσος. ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἄρδω, ὁ μέλλων ἄρσω, ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἄλσος. ἄλδω δέ, τὸ αὐξάνω, <ἀφ’ οὗ> παράγωγον ἀλδαίνω, ὡς <αὔξω> αὐξάνω, καὶ ὡς ἀπὸ περισπωμένου ἀλδήσω καὶ ἀλδήσκω. ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἄλλω τὸ ἀλλόμενον, ἄλλος, καὶ διὰ τὴν συνέμπτωσιν γίνεται ἄλσος); Scholia in Lycophronem 319 (ἅλμα νῦν τὸ ἄλσος παρὰ τὸ ἅλλεσθαι καὶ αὔξεσθαι ἐν αὐτῷ τὰ φυτά); Scholia in Theocritum 5.32b (καὶ τἄλσεα: οἱ σύνδενδροι τόποι παρὰ τὸ εἰς ὕψος ἅλλεσθαι)

Modern etymology

Unknown (Beekes, EDG)

Persistence in Modern Greek

Yes, as a learned word

Entry By

Le Feuvre