ἀρύω

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Mon, 06/21/2021 - 21:30

Word-form

ἀρά

Transliteration (Word)

ara

English translation (word)

prayer

Transliteration (Etymon)

aruō

English translation (etymon)

to shout

Author

Etym. Magnum

Century

12 AD

Source

Idem

Ref.

Etym. Magnum, Kallierges, p. 134

Ed.

T. Gaisford, Etymologicum Magnum, Oxford 1848

Quotation

Ἀρά: Ἡ εὐχή· παρὰ τὸ αἴρειν τὰς χεῖρας εὐχομένους· ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἀρύειν, ὅπερ ἐπὶ τὸ ἐπικαλεῖσθαι ἔταττον, καὶ μάλιστα Συρακούσιοι, ‘Ἀρύετ’ ἂν φύζην’. Ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐπικαλεῖσθε καὶ ἐφέλκεσθε. Ἀρύω, ἀρά. Ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄρεος, βλαπτικοῦ ὄντος, ἀρὰ ἡ βλάβη

Translation (En)

Ara "prayer". From the fact that those who pray raise (airein) their hands. Or from aruein "to shout", which was used for "to call", and particularly by Syracusans "call for the defense (?), instead of "call (as a witness)" and "call to your side". Aruō, ara. Or from Ares, because he is harmful, and a harm is a curse.

Comment

The word is etymologized by a very rare word meaning "to utter", "to shout" (etymology which was sometimes repeated by modern linguists). It is a descriptive etymology: a prayer must be uttered in a loud voice in order to be heard by the god. It implies a formal manipulation, dropping of [u].

Parallels

Etym. Symeonis, vol. 1, p. 164 (idem); Ps.-Zonaras, Lexicon, alpha, p. 295 (Ἀρά. ἡ κατάρα. λέγεται καὶ ἡ εὐχή. παρὰ τὸ αἴρειν τὰς χεῖρας εὐχομένους. ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἀρύειν, τὸ ἐπικαλεῖσθαι, ἀρά. ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄρεως βλαπτικοῦ ὄντος); Scholia in Sophoclem, Aj. 509b (ἀρᾶται: ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀρά, ἡ εὐχή. τὸ δὲ ἀρὰ παρὰ τὸ αἴρειν τὰς χεῖρας εὐχομένους. ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἀρύειν, ὅπερ ἐπὶ τοῦ καλεῖσθαι ἔταττον καὶ μάλιστα οἱ Συρακούσιοι. ἀρύετ’ ἂν φύζην. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐπικαλεῖσθαι καὶ ἐφέλκεσθαι. ἀρύω, ἀρά)

Modern etymology

From ἀρϝά preserved in Arc. κάταρϝος. No secure cognate out of Greek, maybe related to a Hittite verb meaning {to bow, to prostrate" (Beekes, EDG)

Persistence in Modern Greek

MG still has αρά as a learned word for "curse", the usual form being κατάρα

Entry By

Le Feuvre