English translation (word)
English translation (etymon)
Ἀρά: Ἡ εὐχή· παρὰ τὸ αἴρειν τὰς χεῖρας εὐχομένους· ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἀρύειν, ὅπερ ἐπὶ τὸ ἐπικαλεῖσθαι ἔταττον, καὶ μάλιστα Συρακούσιοι, ‘Ἀρύετ’ ἂν φύζην’. Ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐπικαλεῖσθε καὶ ἐφέλκεσθε. Ἀρύω, ἀρά. Ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄρεος, βλαπτικοῦ ὄντος, ἀρὰ ἡ βλάβη
Ara "prayer". From the fact that those who pray raise (airein) their hands. Or from aruein "to shout", which was used for "to call", and particularly by Syracusans "call for the defense (?), instead of "call (as a witness)" and "call to your side". Aruō, ara. Or from Ares, because he is harmful, and a harm is a curse.
The word is etymologized by a very rare word meaning "to utter", "to shout" (etymology which was sometimes repeated by modern linguists). It is a descriptive etymology: a prayer must be uttered in a loud voice in order to be heard by the god. It implies a formal manipulation, dropping of [u].
Etym. Symeonis, vol. 1, p. 164 (idem); Ps.-Zonaras, Lexicon, alpha, p. 295 (Ἀρά. ἡ κατάρα. λέγεται καὶ ἡ εὐχή. παρὰ τὸ αἴρειν τὰς χεῖρας εὐχομένους. ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἀρύειν, τὸ ἐπικαλεῖσθαι, ἀρά. ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄρεως βλαπτικοῦ ὄντος); Scholia in Sophoclem, Aj. 509b (ἀρᾶται: ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀρά, ἡ εὐχή. τὸ δὲ ἀρὰ παρὰ τὸ αἴρειν τὰς χεῖρας εὐχομένους. ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἀρύειν, ὅπερ ἐπὶ τοῦ καλεῖσθαι ἔταττον καὶ μάλιστα οἱ Συρακούσιοι. ἀρύετ’ ἂν φύζην. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐπικαλεῖσθαι καὶ ἐφέλκεσθαι. ἀρύω, ἀρά)