English translation (word)
English translation (etymon)
τράχηλος, τῆς ῥάχης ἧλος
Thakhēlos "neck": from the fact that it is the nail-head (hēlos) of the backbone (rhakhēs).
Descriptive etymology parsing the word as a compound. The nail-head of the backbone would rather be expected as a metaphorical denomination of the head than the neck, but this may be explained by metonymy. A formal manipulation is required, the adjunction of the initial [t]. The etymology was designed at a time when η and ι were both pronounced [I]. The etymology is corrupt in the Etym. Magnum which has ὅλος instead of ἧλος.
Etym. Magnum, Kallierges, p. 764 (Τράχηλος: Παρὰ τὴν τραχύτητα· ὀστῶδες γὰρ τὸ μέρος τοῦτο· ἢ παρὰ τὸ δι’ αὐτοῦ τρέχειν τὴν τροφὴν, οἷον τρόχαλος. Ἢ ὅτι τῆς ῥάχεως ὅλος ἐστὶ τράχηλος· ἢ παρὰ τὸ τραχὺς καὶ τὸ ἧλος, ὁ τραχεῖς ἥλους ἔχων. Ὅτε δέ φησιν Ὅμηρος, ‘ἁπαλοῖο δι’ αὐχένος’, κατ’ ἀντίφρασιν λέγει. Οὕτως Ὦρος); Scholia in Batrachomyomachiam 83 (τράχηλος ἀπὸ τοῦ εἶναι ἧλος τῆς ῥάχεως, πλεονασμῷ τοῦ τ. ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ τραγῶ τὸ ἐσθίω καὶ τοῦ αὐλός τράγαυλος καὶ ἐκβολῇ τοῦ υ καὶ τροπῇ τοῦ γ εἰς χ καὶ τοῦ α εἰς η τράχηλος.)