English translation (word)
English translation (etymon)
Ἄκανθα· διὰ τὸ αἰκίζειν ἤγουν πλήττειν
Akantha "thorn": because it maltreats (aikizein), that is, it beats
The etymology is only half formulated: the given etymon, αἰκίζω, is meant to account for the initial ἀκ-, and not for the -ανθα. The latter was understood as the name of the flower but it seemed so obvious that it was not mentioned in the explanation. The etymology implies a formal manipulation, dropping of the [I] and transformation of the diphthong into a simple vowel. The name of the plant is derived from its effect on man, as it damages the skin.
Etym. Gudianum, alpha, p. 62 (Ἄκανθα· διὰ τὸ αἰκίζειν ἤγουν πλήττειν. ‖ ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἐν τῇ ἀκ⟦ῇ ἀνθεῖν, ἤγουν⟧ ἐν τῇ ὀξύτητι)