English translation (word)
English translation (etymon)
Ares (god of war)
Etym. Genuinum, alpha 1114
F. Lasserre and N. Livadaras, Etymologicum magnum genuinum. Symeonis etymologicum una cum magna grammatica. Etymologicum magnum auctum, vol. 1, Rome: Ateneo, 1976
Ἀργαλέος· χαλεπός· οἶμαι παρὰ τὸν Ἄρην, τὸν πόλεμον, ἀραλέος καὶ πλεονασμῷ τοῦ γ ἀργαλέος. ἢ παρὰ τὸ ἄλγος, ὁ λύπας καὶ κακὰ ἐμποιῶν
Argaleos "painful": I think it comes from Ares, meaning "war" : *araleos and through adjunction of [g], argaleos. Or it comes from algos "pain", and means he who produces evil and sorrow
There are no parallels in ancient sources, unless one assumes that Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthom. 7.365 ἀργαλέου […] ἀπ᾽ Ἄρεος is an etymological figura alluding to that etymology.
Ἀργαλέος is derived from ἄλγος "pain", through dissimilation of an older *ἀλγαλέος.
Persistence in Modern Greek
This is a contextual etymology, relying on the association of ἀργαλέος with πόλεμος in Homer (Il. 14.87 ἀργαλέους πολέμους) and in later authors (Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthom. 7.365 ἀργαλέου […] ἀπ᾽ Ἄρεος), or with other words meaning "fight" (Il. 11.278 φύλοπιν ἀργαλέην "painful battle").